読書日記 Part3(Newton 2019 9月号)

読書日記

どうもこんにちは。まぐろたんです。
7/28にオクトパストラベラー Break&Boost&Beyondに行ってきた帰りにキオスクで見かけたのでつい買ってしまいました。
なんでも表題が「人工知能のすべて」だったもので。(あと交通事故の”心理学”)Pythonで機械学習をやりたいと思っている自分にピッタリだと思いました。 
ちょっと感想とまとめを書いてみたいと思います。

書籍情報
・書籍名:Newton 2019 9
・著者(Editorial Management):福田伊佐央,高嶋秀行
・出版社:ニュートンプレス

トピック
・人工知能のすべて
・見えない光でとらえた極限の宇宙
・東京五輪のエンブレムにかくされた幾何学
・ひそかに全身をむしばむ「歯周病」

私は部分読みしか基本しないので「人工知能のすべて」しか読みません。他が気になった人は自分で買って読んでね。(とちゃっかり宣伝してみたり。回し者じゃないよ!)

内容を軽く紹介
人工知能のすべて(執筆:小松研吾,永原和聡,尾崎太一)
・AIって何だろう?
・AIのしくみ
・社会を変えるAI
・AIがつくる未来

・AIって何だろう?
実は真にAI(人工知能)は実現していない。
AIは過去に2度ブームがあった。
ディープラーニングが第三次ブームを巻き起こした。
世の中でAIは活躍している。
シンギュラリティ(技術的特異点)は来るのか。

・AIのしくみ
AIを理解するのに於いて重要な「機械学習」と「ディープラーニング」。
大量のデータを使ってAI”が”学習する。
機械学習の「教師あり学習」と「教師なし学習」。
AIが樹形図を作って混雑具合を予想。
脳の神経細胞をプログラムでまねる。
人工ニューロンのネットワークを改良しながら学習する。
ディープラーニングは特徴を自分でみつけだす。
耳の長い変わったネコをネコと判定させるには?

・社会を変えるAI
AIがフェイク動画をつくる。その”ウソ”を見抜くのもAI。
薬として使えそうな物質をAIが提案。
AIが医師になる未来は訪れる?急速に進歩する医療AI。
サッカーの戦術を映像から見抜く!
大量の対訳データを学習させ、自動翻訳は実用レベルに!
大量の実験データを学んだAIがよりすぐれた材料を提案。

・AIがつくる未来
AIに奪われる仕事、AIに奪われない仕事。
常識を持たないAIは「適当に考えること」ができない。
言葉の「ほんとうの意味」をAIは理解していない。
AIが俳句を詠む!AIは「創造性」を獲得できるのか?
人と同じように考えることのできる真のAIは、実現するのか?

最初は自分の言葉でまとめていたのですが、だんだん疲れて半分超えたあたりから小見出し写してます。すみません。

感想
 「AIって何だろう?」、「AIのしくみ」は一回学校のレポートで、猫の判別に関してはロボコンで触ってるのでほぼ既知の情報でした。
 私が今回興味を持ったのは「常識を持たないAIは「適当に考えること」ができない」と「人と同じように考えることのできる真のAIは実現するのか?」
です。
 「常識を持たないAIは「適当に考えること」ができない」は実験を3つロボットを使ってしていて、ロボットに洞窟の中に「バッテリーがあるから取ってこい」(犬感)という命令をします。
バッテリーには時限爆弾がついており、一号機は時限爆弾ごと、命令を追加された二号機は洞窟の中の時限爆弾付きバッテリーの前で様々な思考をし歩行停止。更に命令を追加した三号機は洞窟の前でとまってしまいます。
この記事の内容は「フレーム問題」でアメリカの哲学者ダニエル・デネット(1942~)の思考実験(*1)です。この「フレーム問題」とは先の例で示した、AIは決められた枠組(フレーム)の中でしか命令を処理できないという問題です。
*1実験を行って得られる結果を推論すること

 「人と同じように考えることのできる真のAIは実現するのか?」という記事では、三つに分けて解説されており、AIに「心」をもたせることはできるのかという記事にひかれました。将来AIが人間と同じように思考しているように見えたとしても、その中身は人間とは異なるというものです。
しかし、人間がAIを心をもっていると感じられれば心をもっていると判断して良いのではないか。といったものです。チューニング・テスト(*2)っぽい。
*2アラン・チューリングによって考案されたテスト。二台のディスプレイの前にテストを行う人がいて、片方は人間が、もう片方にはコンピュータが隠れている。コンピュータは人間に似るように振る舞い、テストを行う人がどちらが本当の人間か当てるというもの。

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